In Villains (Part 1), I talked about how useful villains can be.
- In terms of plot, they get in the way of what the protagonists want to do, thereby creating action.
- In terms of character, they often demonstrate qualities that the protagonists lack, thereby indicating ways in which the protagonists must grow in order to become better rounded people.
- At the same time, villains can also demonstrate unwholesome aspects of those qualities. The reader then wants to keep reading in order to see whether the protagonists can develop the qualities in a healthy way, without becoming as bad as the villains.
Villains generally need a good reason for what they do. Admittedly, horror stories occasionally get away with villains being incomprehensible. The first example that comes to mind is Hill House, the villain in The Haunting of Hill House by Shirley Jackson. Hill House is a haunted house that drives people mad. There’s no clear reason why it’s haunted, or why it does what it does—we get hints about its unsavory past, but Jackson never tries to spell out explicit causes. It’s simply a bad place, and it has bad effects on people who go there.
But apart from such rare exceptions, villains need a reason for their actions. Readers want to understand motivations. In fact, the lack of motivation is one reason why Hill House and other motiveless villains are so disconcerting: they’re evil just because. You’re never going to make sense of it.
But a villain’s motivations shouldn’t be trivial or simplistic. The great screenwriter, Paddy Chayefsky, mocked “The Rubber-Ducky School of Drama” which invented lame excuses for why villains did terrible things: “Someone once took his rubber-ducky away from him, and that’s why he’s a deranged killer.”
Villains need better reasons for being villainous. And in the next installment of this series, I’ll talk about some possibilities.